Computing also ensures that pupils become digitally literate, able to use, and express themselves and develop their ideas through, information and communication technology at a level suitable for the future workplace and as active participants in a digital world.
Computing programmes of study, KS 1 and 2 (2013).
Department for Education.
The new computing curriculum provides useful changes to the way we think about and work with digital technologies. There is a renewed interest in computing in terms of computational thinking and coding, and the need to ensure that children are digitally literate. The computing programmes of study KS 1 and 2 document provides the following guidance with respect to digital literacy. KS1 children need to be able to:
- use technology purposefully to create, organise, store, manipulate and retrieve digital content
- recognise common uses of information technology beyond school
- use technology safely and respectfully, keeping personal information private; identify where to go for help and support when they have concerns about content or contact on the internet or other online technologies.
In KS2, children need to be able to:
- understand computer networks, including the internet; how they can provide multiple services, such as the World Wide Web, and the opportunities they offer for communication and collaboration
- use search technologies effectively, appreciate how results are selected and ranked, and be discerning in evaluating digital content
- select, use and combine a variety of software (including internet services) on a range of digital devices to design and create a range of programs, systems and content that accomplish given goals, including collecting, analysing, evaluating and presenting data and information
- use technology safely, respectfully and responsibly; recognise acceptable/unacceptable behaviour; identify a range of ways to report concerns about content and contact.
While these are useful, there is little in the way of a definition of digital literacy, or a detailed discussion about the nature of digital literacies. This post attempts to address these shortcomings by looking in more detail at the notion of digital literacy and the nature of the different ‘literacies’ which are currently being debated online. There are many aspects to digital literacy and many online practices which involve them. Three key practices will be looked at here – the use of blogs, wikis and social bookmarking.
Digital literacy, digital literacies
I like to distinguish between digital literacy and digital literacies, the former being a critical understanding of the impact of digital technologies on our society, its institutions and ourselves as individuals. These technologies have resulted in major changes in the way our society operates and the way we do things. For many, these are emancipatory, enabling us to do things more effectively (better), efficiently (quicker) and most importantly, to do things that we have not been able to do before. Living in a digital society means that a wide range of information is easily available to us, largely at any time and from any place. Current innovation revolves around increasing mobility, with smart phones, tablets and ever lighter laptop computers enabling us to remain in contact wherever we might be. However, as with all technologies, these advantages are balanced by disadvantages. These include cybercrime, perpetrated by faceless criminals in remote locations, identity theft, on-line bullying, grooming, troll attacks, hacking, phishing and viruses. Relatively new is the disturbing perception of governments around the world that leveraging the ability of these technologies to surveil not only their own populations, but also those of other countries, is an acceptable and perhaps even desirable practice. An important issue is raised here. The ability to do things that could not be done before does not mean that general ethical values do not apply. There is a need for innovations and the capabilities they provide to be given serious consideration in terms of ethical standards of use.
Given this, a person who is digitally literate would be expected to have a critical appreciation of both the advantages and disadvantages which arise in our rapidly developing digital world. This involves bringing critical cognitive capacities to bear when working in the digital domain so as to make effective use of the advantages offered while recognition and avoiding the dangers. In essence, a digitally literate person understands the increasingly digital world we live in and is able to thrive in it, rather than simply survive.
Digital literacies can be seen as the skills, tools and competencies we use to interact effectively as citizens of a digital society as we navigate, critically analyse, create, share and collate information as we go about our business in the digital sphere. For the purposes of this post, we will look at the ideas of Wheeler (2012), Summey (2013), Belshaw (2012) and Rheingold (2012).
Wheeler (2012) identifies the following as digital literacy competences.
- social networking
- transliteracy (ability to operate across a wide range of digital platforms)
- maintaining privacy (staying safe online)
- managing identity (using multiple online identities)
- creating content (eg – blogs, participating on wikis, discussion groups)
- organising and sharing content (posting to different platforms, saving and collating information online)
- reusing/re-purposing content (mashing, mixing)
- filtering and selecting content (finding, saving content in ways which enable us to find it easily)
- self broadcasting (sharing one’s own content with others across different platforms).
The diagram below (Paul, 2013) expands on these.
Rheingold (2012) has a simpler five point structure.
- Attention! The Fundamental Literacy
- Calibrating Your Crap Detector: What You Pay Attention to After You Pay Attention to Attention (critical awareness)
- What It Takes to Participate in Participatory Culture—and What You Get Out of It
- Clueing in to Collaboration: Making Virtual Communities, Collective Intelligence, and Knowledge Networks Work for You (and Us)
- What You Need to Know about Network Smarts—from Small Worlds to Privacy Settings, from Weak Ties to Social Capital.
Summey (2013:5) also provides five digital literacies:
- locating and filtering
- sharing and collaborating
- organising and curating
- creating and generating
- reusing and re-purposing.
Summey (2013, p 15) provides a diagrammatic representation of these.
Belshaw (2012) also emphasises the plurality of the digital literacies, providing eight ‘essential elements’ in which ‘skills, attitudes and aptitudes’ need to be developed (p 42). These eight broad elements are:
These are expanded in the diagram (Paul, 2013) below.
Other diagrammatic representations of digital literacy include the one below from Futurelab (2010)
Definitions of Digital literacy from the futurelab Digital Literacy across the Curriculum handbook (2010: p.19)
What is clear from all these definitions is that digital literacy is closely tied to the idea of the participatory web and communication, where we are are not simple consumers of information but active participants and contributors to the richness of content available online. However, it is important to note that digital literacy is not necessarily confined to digital resources. Bawden (2008), commenting on Paul Gilster’s early work (1997) on digital literacy makes the point that the term is inclusive of former technologies (such as print), highlighting the tendency for old and new technologies to exist comfortably side by side. Notwithstanding rapid developments in digital technology, there is still a place for pencil and paper and paper based resources like newspapers and books. Thus, digital literacy can be seen as “the current form of the traditional idea of literacy per se – the ability to read, write, and otherwise deal with information using the technologies and formats of the time… (p 18)… involving the understanding of how to complement digital resources with such things as reference works in libraries, printed newspapers and magazines, radio and television, and printed works of literature” (p 19).
The question is how schools can to expose children to these literacies in a way which provides contexts which are practical, relevant, realistic and linked to the curriculum. There are a number of useful platforms which can be used to do this, including blogs, wikis and social bookmarking platforms like Delicious. These are essentially Web 2 platforms, which celebrate user generated content. Blogs are widely used by individuals and the corporate world, having gone ‘mainstream’ over the past few years and are now permanent features of newspapers, providing journalists with a platform for less formal journalistic writing.
Blogs and blogging
The word ‘blog’ is short for ‘weblog’, suggesting a way of journaling or ‘logging’ data online. Blogs provide a chronological record of posts, with the most recent at the top. Theysupport hyperlinking and are multimedia capable, enabling authors to provide narratives consisting of text, images, video and audio. Blogs were one of the first instances of socially or user generated content applications to go mainstream – the first ‘native genre’ of the internet, according to Rebecca Blood, an early web analyst. They cover an extremely wide variety of topics and have been been used in schools for at least a decade. Most school blogs are class blogs, showing examples of good work, reporting on visits and so on. Others have used them more widely, communicating with schools across the country and the EU. However, children also have their own blogs. Martha Payne achieved a level of notoriety when her NeverSeconds blog was closed down by the Argyll and Bute council. There are a good number of educators who blog about technology. See this and this example. Other teachers blog about their workplaces. Such blogs provide a useful glimpse into the world of teaching and are generally written using a pseudonym, which helps to support anonymity. This is highly recommended for bloggers who touch on controversial topics. However, blogging about the workplace is dangerous, given that it is relatively easy to find the person behind the pseudonym, given the digital ‘crumb trail’ that we leave while working online. Two high profile bloggers outed online include policemen Richard Horton and sex worker Belle de Joer. A number of employees have been dismissed for blogging, including Ellen Simonetti, an air hostess working for Delta, Joe Gordon who allegedly brought his company (Waterstones) into disrepute and Catherine Sanderson, a British worker in Paris, again for allegedly bringing her company into disrepute. Sanderson was awarded £30,000 for unfair dismissal.
One of the strengths of blogs as educational tools is as reflective journals. Another aspect of blogging is the ‘kudos’ of being a member of the blogosphere, a space reasonably free of judgement based on grounds of colour, gender, nationality and disability. In their book on the use of new web tools in primary classrooms, Barber and Cooper (2012) describe blogs as empowering “in activities that require interaction, by removing physical, social or environmental inhibitors (page 13).” Thus, issues that constrain children in classroom situations, such as negative labeling, perceived views of peers and other factors impacting negatively on self-esteem and personal issues like shyness” can be rendered less intrusive” (page 14). Barber and Cooper make a strong case for blogging as a platform which supports authentic writing (engaging an audience) and that is extendable (connected to a wider community of readers and collaborators). They also see blogs as highly adaptable, supporting individual or group endeavours and highlight the easy with which they can be published online, without the need to understand the underlying internet protocols.
Rettberg (2009) discusses Dysthe’s (2000) work on the difference between “thinking writing” and “presentation writing”. The former is the ‘process’ writing we do when we attempt when we wrestle with problems and ideas as we try to make sense of the world around us. It is largely personal, a kind of ‘lone scientist’ activity which Piaget highlighted as important for developing understanding. Presentation writing is aimed at an audience, involving a message. As such, there is always a reader in mind when writing. Rettberg suggests that blogging combines aspects of both thinking and presentation writing. This would seem to make sense, given that blogs are public spaces where readers can comment on the content suits this practice, leading bloggers take care to ensure that their posts are carefully constructed.
The Blogging Platform
Blogs offer a number of advantages over ‘traditional’ writing platforms such as word processing. They are fully multimedia Web 2.0 platforms, accessible from anywhere at any time as long as one has an internet ready device. Blogs provide a wide range of attractive templates or themes, as well as widgets and other add-ons. These allowing a high level of personalisation which is not possible with writing platforms like word processors. Widgets can include providing links to one’s Twitter and Flickr sites, tag and category clouds and Blog platforms provide some of these these as part of the service, with some specific themes and add-ons available at a cost. Many also provide the option to personalise web addresses – for instance, Monty.com or Monty.org. Perhaps most important is their ease of use. Editing is as simple as wordprocessing, with the option to save drafts until the post is ready for publishing, which makes it available online. The post can, if required, be taken off-line for further development.
Blogs in Plain English – Lee Lefever, Commoncraft
As multimedia platforms, blogs lend them to specialist use as can seen from the examples of commercial blogs as platforms for showcasing art and other artefacts for sale. However, there are a number of specialist blogs, dedicated to showcasing things like photographs, of which Flickr and Blip Photo are examples. Another aspect of digital literacy creeps in here, given the important issue of copyright and the ease with which one’s work online can be ripped off online. Sites like Flickr make it easy for copyright owners to share their work in more flexible and creative ways than provided by ‘analogue’ mindsets on copyright issues. The copyright model best suited for the social online world is that of Creative Commons. This enables the owner to stipulate the exact conditions under which his or her work can be shared. Six basic models are provided, ranging from full copyright (all rights reserved) , through some rights reserved to an open ‘all rights granted’ licence. The range of licences can be seen here.
Those who prefer video to still photography will produce and share video blogs. Here is a guide to video blogging from Mashable.
What we see from this is that there is a wide range of blog categories on the web in terms of the specific media that they specialise in and, within these, special areas of interest. However, most blogs provide a mix of mediums. Photos on Flickr will often be described using text, and include comments from followers. Travel blogs will often use photos together with text and audio to provide a record of each day of a holiday or other such trip. These provide a multimedia record events, which can be shared across the web.
The discussion above covers a wider range of opportunities than is perhaps possible in schools, given current beliefs about online safety and keeping children safe. However, it is suggested that sites like Flickr can be used to demonstrate issues surrounding copyright and to demonstrate how developing technologies change the way we look at concepts like copyright. Classroom blogging within a walled garden is probably the most popular way to use blogs in primary schools. However, children and families can branch out with their own blogs. Travel blogs are probably the easiest to get started with, providing a record of places visited, supported by photographs, video and audio content.
Wikis are similar to blogs being user generated multimedia capable social platforms. The main difference between them is that while blogs are mainly personal, wikis are designed specifically as collaborative platforms. As such, they lend themselves well to project work and other collaborative endeavours and to situations where diverse data needs to be collated and coordinated in one place. Well known wikis include Wikipedia, WikiHow, Wictionary and Urban Dictionary. Like blogs, wikis are used by a variety of individuals and organisations. The well known ‘social’ wikis are open, allowing anyone to register and post online. This involves editing existing posts to correct information or to update by removing out of date content or providing newer information. However, wikis can also be closed, ensuring that only registered users can update information, and even that they are the only people who can see it. This makes wikis especially useful for schools and other organisations where privacy is important.
Wikis have other important characteristics, the most important one being the rollback feature. A ‘history’ of every edit of each page is kept on a wiki, enabling the administrator to roll back to previous versions of the page should a user inadvertently delete it or make inappropriate comments or changes. Furthermore, the administrator and each user can request notifications of each and every update. Most users turn this feature off, but it is useful for administrators who need to keep track of activity on the site. Wikis lend themselves well to use in education. They are ideal platforms for any kind of collaborative activity, such as project work. Users can create and edit their own pages, using the wiki for group planning, discussion, rough posts and the final submission. They provide full support for multimedia, enabling the inclusion of text, images, video and audio files. Wikis have no boundaries, enabling them to be used for projects across the school, across schools, countries and continents, allowing cross-cultural exchanges and sharing. They are also good platforms for collating information, such as teaching resources, lesson plans and lesson ideas. As such, they are efficient platforms for supporting communities of practice, making it easy for teachers anywhere (within a school year group, across schools and across countries).
Some ideas for using wikis in primary school.
History, geography and science projects, where groups develop relevant pages their own section of the wiki. The wiki then becomes the project, with the contributions of groups (or even individuals) easy to find, assess and share. Pages provide opportunities to comment, enabling easy feedback by the teacher and others in the class.
Wikis can go beyond curriculum. Cultural exchange wikis allow schools from different countries and continents to share information about themselves, their interests and their culture, as long as they share a common language. Many countries have English as an official language and many others teach it as a second or third language. This provides good opportunities for foreign children to practice their English skills, and for local children to learn about foreign cultures.
This diagram provides an outline for a community history wiki of a town in England. The overview highlights children being involved in interviewing, filming and reporting on their interactions with community members – the local Mayor, ex-servicemen talking about their war experiences ,or business leaders. Doing this involves developing and using multimedia creation skills which would include photography, audio and video recording and – more importantly – the editing of these digital resources to produce digital narratives that are clear, coherent and cohesive. Software which supports such creation and editing includes iMovie (Mac) and Movie Maker (Windows) and Audacity (audio). Other useful tools include presentation software like Powtoon.
Wikis support shared writing in any form and for collating information and writing across genres. An English wiki could thus be the platform which collates work recorded on individual or class blogs, resources including favourite poems, e-books, artistic endeavours, audio interviews and video of group performances.
Year Group Wiki
This is useful for teachers, who need to create, find and share information. This could include lesson plans, self-developed and online resources. The wiki provides a coinvenient platform to collate this kind of information. Lesson plans can be altered to suit different groups and saved under a different name to keep original planning intact.
Wikis in Plain English. Lee Lefever, Commoncraft.
Social bookmarking, tagging, folksonomies
Both blogs and wikis provide the facility for readers to comment on posts, facilitating a two way low of information. They also enable writers to create tags – usually words which ‘identify’ the nature or features of the post, enabling any posts with that identifier to be located using a search. This post, for instance, has eleven tags, including ‘blogs’, ‘wikis’ and ‘digital literacy’. I have also used a ‘widget’ which adds a tag cloud on the right hand side. Clicking on any of these words lists all the the posts on the blog which have that tag. Tags provide a new way to ‘file’ information, without having to create folders. Tags are informal and personal. There is no fixed convention for tag names. They provide a common sense way of identifying and enabling quick searches for a topic, based on folksonomies. The word folksonomy is a combination of ‘folk’ and ‘taxonomy’ and was coined by Thomas Vander Wel, an information design specialist. Tagging is used widely on the web and features largely on applications which value social networking and social bookmarking. Social bookmarking sites like Delicious and Diigo use tags to identify digital artefacts so as to simplify the task or organising and creating large bodies of information. This link takes you to my Delicious site, and shows all the web pages and other digital artefacts that I have bookmarked for this particular session, using the tag ‘pgce’ . You will notice that there is a range of tags for each, including other courses that I teach on, such as the M.Sc Learning and Digital Literacies course (LDL), and the B.Sc Education course (bsced). Other tags provide further identifiers to make the articles easy to find. Searches can be narrowed by using more than a single tags, as shown here where the # sign is used to identify only artefacts which have pgce, blogs, wikis as tags.
Using social bookmarking sites like Delicious is invaluable for anyone who needs to collect, organise, curate, collate and share digital information. These can be shared directly with others, and are searchable by anyone using the bookmarking service. Any kind of digital artefact can be bookmarked, including web pages, academic articles from journals, photographs and videos. Many electronic artefacts make bookmarking easy by providing links to popular bookmarking services. These are usually at the bottom of the article. See graphic below, which comes from the BBC News site.
However, not all sites provide this courtesy. This being the case, when setting up your social bookmarking service, drag the provided ‘button’ onto the favourites bar of your browser. The graphic below shows a link to Delicious on my favourites bar.
There is no reason why social bookmarking should not be used in the classroom. Children who use online content should be taught how to organise content in a range of ways. Documents created and saved on a computer are placed in folders with names that indicate the nature of the content, online documents are ‘tagged’ with identifiers that provide information as to the nature of their content and saved online. This is a good way to collate online sources used for projects.
Multimedia has been highlighted during this discussion. It is important that children be provided with opportunities to develop multimedia skills. These include opportunities to use blogs and wikis but also include recording and editing photographs, audio and video. Editing suites for these are no longer expensive – many are free. However, relevant and appropriate opportunities to use these need to be found and used. Such opportunities could involve children using their own devices, given that many mobile phones have still, video and audio recording capacity and apps which enable users to edit content.
Web 2.0 (the ‘social’ or ‘participatory’ web) provides a secure platform for open discussion (blogs) and collaboration (wikis). This offers opportunities for both teachers and students to work in new ways which extend and enrich learning. Blogs offer unique opportunities to write for a world wide audience. At the same time they provides opportunities for others, be they fellow students, teachers or people interested in the same area of endeavour, to provide feedback. Wikis offer opportunities to collaborate with others across the world, developing resources which others can use, edit and augment. The emergence of MOOCs indicates that open sharing of high grade resources is the way forward. The use of social media in the form of blogs and wikis supports this, providing a way for small players with unique and useful insights to make a contribution. Social networking provides opportunities for the development of Communities of Practices, be they formal or informal and active and responsible participation in these servers to develop our understanding of the important digital literacies which are essential for us to thrive in a rapidly changing and increasingly networked world.
The diagram below attempts to provide a ‘map’ of the literacies as they apply to the use of blogs and wikis. We see that the literacies apply largely to both practices. Those positioned above and below a specific practice apply to that particular one more than the other. From this we see that managing identity /maintaining privacy is probably more relevant to bloggers than those who participate collaboratively on a wiki, while activities like organising, sharing, curating and crap detecting are perhaps more relevant to wikis. However, this is a personal analysis based on my own work with blogs and wikis. Analyses by others are likely to be different.
List of references
Bawden, D. (2008) Origins and Concepts of Digital Literacy. In Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2008) Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices.
Beale, R. (2007) Blogs, reflective practice and student centered learning.
Belshaw, D. (2013) The Essential Elements of Digital Literacies.
Hafner, C. & Jones, R. (2012) Understanding Digital Literacies. A practical introduction.
Paul, J. (2012) New Literacies and Their Affordances. Primary Blog.
Paul, J. (2009) Using wikis as learning tools. Primary Blog.
Rettberg, J. Blogging as a Tool for Reflection and Learning.
Rourke, A., & Coleman, K. (2009) An emancipating space: Reflective and collaborative blogging.
Richardson, W. (2006) Blogs, wikis, podcasts and other powerful web tools for classrooms. Corwin Press, California.
Summey, D. (2013) Developing Digital Literacies. A Framework for Professional Learning.
Wheeler, S. (2010) What are digital literacies?
Wheeler, S. (2012) Digital Literacies for Engagement in Emerging Online Cultures.
Other useful resources
Beetham, H., McGill, L. & Littlejohn, A. (2009) Thriving in the 21st Century: Learning Literacies for the Digital Age.
Belshaw, D. (2012) What is ‘digital literacy’? A Pragmatic investigation. Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/3446/
Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2008) Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices.
Erstad, O. (2011) Citizens Navigating in Literate Worlds. The Case of Digital Literacy. In Thomas, M. (2011) (Ed.) Deconstructing Digital Natives. Young People, Technology and the New Literacies.
Wan, N. (2012) Can we teach digital natives digital literacy? Computers & Education, Volume 59(3) 1065-1078.
Buckingham. D. (2008) Defining Digital Literacy. What do Young People Need to Know About Digital Media? In Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (2008) Digital Literacies: Concepts, Policies and Practices.
Hague, C. & Payton, S. (2010) Digital Literacies across the Curriculum. Futurelab.
Jisc (2011) Developing Digital Literacies: Briefing Paper in support of JISC Grant Funding 4/11
Jisc (2013) Developing Digital Literacies.
Prensky, M. (2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants.
Utrecht, J. (2009) Digital Literacy vs Networked Literacy. The Thinking Stick blog.
Utrecht, J. (2009) See this diagram from the post entitled The age of Composition.
Wheeler, S. (2013) Can we teach digital literacies? Blog
Journal articles on the Educational use of wikis.
Boulos, M. & Wheeler, S. (2007) The emerging Web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite of sociable technologies in health and health care education.
Cole, M. (2009) Using wiki technology to support student engagement: Lessons from the trenches.
Désilets, A., Paquet, S., and Vinson, N.G. (2005) Are wikis useable? International Symposium on Wikis. October 17-18, 2005. San Diego, California, USA. NRC 48272.
Godwin-Jones, R. (2003) Emerging Technologies.Blogs and Wikis: Environments for On-line Collaborartion. Language Learning and Technology, 7(2), 12-16.
Grant, L. (2006) Using Wikis in Schools. A Case Study. Futurelab.
Guth, S. (2007). Wiki in Education: Is Public Better? WikiSym 07 Converence, Montreal, October 2007.
Haldane, M. (2007) Interactivity and the digital whiteboard: weaving the fabric of learning. Learning, Media and Technology 32(3) 257-270.
Birka Jaksch, Saskia-Janina Kepp, and Christa Womser-Hacker.(2008) Integration of a wiki for collaborative knowledge development in an elearning context for university teaching. Lecture notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5298.
Lamb, B. (2004) Wide open spaces: Wikis, ready or not.
Moskaliuk, J. (2009) Wiki supported learning and knowledge building: effects of incongruity bertween knowledge and information.
Nuutinen, J. (2010) From mindtools to social mindtools: Colaborative writing and woven stories
Neumann, David L. & Hood, Michelle. (2009) The effects of using a wiki on student engagement and learning of report writing skills in a university statistics course. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(3). 382-398.
Parker, K. & Chao, J. (2007) Wiki as a teaching tool.
Wang, C. & Turner D. (2004) Extending the wiki paradigm for use in the classroom.
Wen-Chung Shih et al. (2008) Wiki-based rapid prototyping for teaching-material design in e-Learning grids
Wheeler, S. & Wheeler, D. (2007) Evaluating Wiki as a tool to promote quality academic writing skills.
Wheeler, S. (2008) All Changing: The Social Web and the Future of Higher Education (a tale of two keynotes).
Wheeler, S., Yeomans, P. & Wheeler, D. (2008) The good, the bad and the wiki: Evaluating student-generated content for collaborative learning.
Wheeler, S. & Boulos, K. (2008) Mashing, Burning, Mixing and the Destructive Creativity of Web 2.0: Applications for Medical Education.
Wheeler, S. & Wheeler, D. (2009) Using wikis to promote quality learning in teacher training.
Journal articles on Blogs and Blogging
Beale, R. (2007) Blogs, reflective practice and student-centered learning.
Boulos, M & Wheeler, S. (2007) The emerging Web 2.0 social software: an enabling suite.
Brescia, W. & Miller, M. (2005) What’s it Worth? The Perceived Benefits of Instructional Blogging. Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education, Vol. 5
Chan, K-K. & Ridgeway, J. (2005?) Blog: a tool for reflective practice in teacher education?Chandra, V. & Lloyd, M. (2008) The methodological nettle: ICT and student achievement. British Journal of Educational Technology, V 39 (6), 1087–1098.
Downes, S. (2004) Educational Blogging.
Drezner, D. & Farrell, H. (2008). Blogs, politics and power: a special issue of Public Choice. Public Choice 134: 1–13.
Ebner, M., Lienhardt, C., Rohs, M. & Meyer, I. (2010) Microblogs in Higher Education – A chance to facilitate informart and process-oriented learning? Computers and Education. 55, 92-100.
Gill, K. (2004) How can we measure the influence of the blogosphere?
Harris, H. & Park, S. Educational useages of podcasting.
Hernández-Ramos, P. (2004) Web Logs and Online Discussions as Tools to Promote Reflective Practice. The Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 3 (1).
Huffaker, D. (2005) Let them Blog: Using weblogs to promote Literacy in K-12 Education.
Kamel Boulos, M., Inocencio Maramba, I. & and Wheeler, S. (2006) Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education. BMC Medical Education 2006, 6:41
Karger, D.R. & Quanb, D. (2005) What would it mean to blog on the semantic web? Journal of Web Semantics, 3 (2-3), 147-157.
Kennedy, R. (2004) Weblogs, Social Software, and New Interactivity on the Web. Psychiatric Services, 55(3).
Lee, M., McLoughan, C. & Chan, A. Talk the Talk: Learner generated podcasts as catalysts for knowledge creation.
Nataatmadja, I & Dyson, L. E. The Role of Podcasts in Students’ Learning.
Mortensen, T. & Walker, J.(2004) Blogging thoughts: personal publication as an online research tool.
Parker, C. & Pfeiffer, S. (2005) Videoblogging: Content to the max. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia. IEEE Multimedia, April-June.
Probert, E. (2009) Information Literacy Skills: Teacher understandings and practice. Computers and Education 53, 24-33.
Wheeler, S & Lambert-Heggs, W. (2008) The MentorBlog Project: Connecting student teachers and their mentors through social software
Wheeler, S. (2008) All Changing: The Social Web and the Future of Higher Education (a tale of two keynotes).
Wheeler, S. (2013) Blogging as literacy. Learning with ‘e’s Blog.
Williams, J. & Jacobs, J. (2004) Exploring the use of blogs as learning spaces in the higher education sector. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 20(2), 232-247.
Educational technology blogs
Related posts on this blog
The impact of multimedia on the gathering and dissemination of news for information on how blogging has changed news gathering and reporting and Blogs as reflective writing tools on the use of blogs in education.
See this post from The Next Web for 15 recommended blogging platforms.